I found this flowchart online, which seems to be a really good electrical troubleshooting flowchart. I printed it out and headed to the garage.
I did all of the current tests, voltage tests, stator tests, and voltage regulator tests. The bike passed every one with flying colors.
Since taking things apart and putting them together made the bike happy, I’m assuming that the voltage regulator connections were wonky. Along those lines, I should swing by Radio Shack and pick up some dielectric grease for the battery terminals.
I’m pretty proud of myself; at the risk of sounding like a big girlygirl, I usually have to ask Peter how to work my multimeter. I’m still a little unclear on the ammeter part of things, but I figured out all the voltage and diode tests. Woo!